[Update 01/31/18: macOS Server Will Lose Many Services this Spring: Here Are Alternatives]
[Update: March 2017] Find the entire macOS Server series here!
[Update: October 2017] Upgrading macOS Server to High Sierra: You May Not Want To Do It
Have you ever wished that you could run your own Apple Mail server or host a website from your own Mac? How about hosting your own calendar server for a group, or perhaps setting up a VPN server for secure remote access to your home office from anywhere in the world? These services and more can be hosted from almost any Mac with one inexpensive and easily-acquired Apple product — macOS Server.
This is the first in a series of articles for the Rocket Yard in which we’ll show you how to set up your own macOS Server and configure the various services. Today, we’ll cover what macOS Server is all about, the minimum Mac requirements to run macOS Server, and how to purchase and install the app. In future installments, the individual services provided by macOS Server will be highlighted along with step-by-step instructions on how to configure the services while avoiding unnecessary pitfalls.
Related article: macOS in Review: A Look at the First Four Months of Sierra
Apple is no longer in the physical server business, having made the last of the expensive rack-mounted Xserve boxes (see image below) back in 2011. That makes quite a bit of sense, since the most popular server hardware the company makes is the Mac mini. In fact, between mid 2010 and late 2012, Apple actually produced a model of the Mac mini specifically designed to run as a server. The Mac Pro is also designated as an Apple “server” model for larger workgroups.
With no more dedicated server hardware, the company chose to turn the formerly pricy server software into an app. Previously known as Mac OS X Server, the app’s name changed to macOS Server along with the release of macOS Sierra.
For $20, anyone with a Mac that meets the minimum hardware requirements can now set up a server. Can you run macOS Server on your desktop Mac? Sure, but realize that hosting email, calendars, and more will take up a lot of resources on your Mac, so it’s best to dedicate a machine specifically to the task of being a server.
So, What’s a Server?
Servers are meant to provide various services to a workgroup. In an enterprise, server farms provide email, file storage and sharing, web services, and more to employees with racks full of “pizza box” servers connected to mass storage devices. In a small business or home settings, a single computer can provide the same services on a much smaller scale.
Why would you want your own server? Perhaps you want absolutely secure email that you host yourself. The same goes for hosting calendars, contacts or your own wiki. Maybe you don’t trust those third-party VPN providers, so you can set up your own. The full list of services provided by macOS Server includes:
- File Sharing (SMB, AFP, and WebDAV)
- Profile Manager (Mobile Device Management for Mac and iOS devices)
- Caching Server (speeds up the download of software distributed by Apple)
- Xcode Server (for groups developing macOS and iOS apps with Xcode)
- Time Machine (a backup destination for Macs on a network)
- Calendar Server (share calendars, schedule events/meetings, book resources)
- Contacts Server (sync contacts with Mac, iPad and iPhone)
- Wiki Server (host your own local Wiki)
- Mail Server (SMTP, IMAP, and POP server with SSL encryption)
- Virtual Private Network Server (remote access with encrypted connections)
- Xsan (for connectivity to and control of storage area networks)
- Server App (for setup, configuration, and management)
Apple has democratized the server, taking it out of the purview of IT departments and placing it in the capable hands of anyone who owns a Mac.
What Kind of Mac Do I Need?
According to Apple’s macOS Server web pages, the app requires:
- A Mac running macOS Sierra
- 2GB of memory (it’s best to have at least 8GB, 16GB is better)
- 10GB of available disk space (you’ll want more, especially if using the server as a Time Machine server)
- An Internet connection
- An Apple ID
Earlier I mentioned using a Mac mini as a server, and that’s a great idea. Once the server is set up and running, you can pull the monitor, keyboard, and mouse/trackpad from the Mac mini and run it as a “headless server”. Put it somewhere with good power, ventilation, and Internet, and you’ll rarely have to pay attention to it. When you need to change a setting or reboot the mini, you can do it from your everyday Mac.
A great source of used Mac minis is OWC! For as little as $385 you can buy a refurbished Mac mini that is perfectly capable of handling macOS Server. You’ll need a monitor, keyboard, and mouse during initial setup.
Purchase and Initial Setup of macOS Server
Do you think you’ll need to jump through hoops and obtain some sort of certification before you can set up macOS Server? Nope. As long as you have the ability to purchase apps from the Mac App Store, you’re ready to roll.
In the Mac App Store, take a look at the right sidebar and look for the category “Apps by Apple”. Click on it, and under the category macOS you’ll see macOS Server. A small button displays the $19.99 price tag; click on it to begin purchasing macOS Server. Once the purchase is complete, the macOS Server app is downloaded and installed in the Applications folder.
Launching macOS Server is just like launching any other app — double-click the app icon. You’ll need to know the administrator password for the Mac you’re installing macOS Server on. Once Server has been launched, two things happen; a window titled “macOS Server Tutorials” is opened, and the Server administration console window is opened (see image below).
The tutorials are quite useful, although they tend to put a simple spin on what can be frustrating and time-consuming setup steps. That’s the purpose of this series; we’ll try to point out those potential pitfalls and show you ways around them.
In the next post in this series, we’ll set up our server for a small business. That doesn’t mean that we’re going to have mail, Time Machine, calendar and all of those other services set up and running in one article. Instead, we’ll go through the process of getting the network infrastructure and naming done so that all of the services provided by macOS Server can be easily accessed from outside the office (or home) network. Getting that done correctly the first time is critical to making sure that everything else works properly.
[Update] Find Part 2 here: Understanding macOS Server Part 2: Serving a Small Business